BioCellular Analysis

Why would you as a doctor or health practitioner recommended to your patient a BioCellular Analysis test? Simply put it is to help you in assessing the state of their wellness or illness. This test is a diagnostic screening method that is able to measure several factors of the internal environment of your body. This environment is often referred to as the "terrain" or "biological terrain". While other fields of medicine examine, isolate or treat one particular part or system of the body, BioCellular Analysis monitors the entire internal biochemical environment of the body. This complete information gives the physician a baseline to determine the course of treatment, as well as an objective procedure for monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment. BioCellular Analysis helps you to uncover the underlying cause or causes of the patient's imbalance or illness, rather then treating a list of "symptoms". 

The History

A 19th century physiologist, Professor Claude Bernard, believed that the environment of the cell, which he termed the milieu intérieur, determined the cell's function and integrity. In 1953, a French scientist, Professor Louis-Claude Vincent, developed the concept that the body's internal environment at the cellular level has a specific correlation to the overall state of health and disease. He hypothesized that the biocellular environment determines the body's tendency toward developing various metabolic imbalances that can lead to disease. According to Vincent this biocellular environment can be likened to the terrain of the soil in which a farmer grows crops. If the soil is too acid or too alkaline, has too much or too little oxygen or nitrogen, or has an imbalance of other nutrients, the crops either will not grow, or will become weakened and more susceptible to microbes and other forms of disease. Instead of results for terrain imbalance (i.e. the sick plant), he stated that the better approach is to work with the various factors that determine the overall terrain of the soil, and in this way prevent the imbalance form occurring. The same approach is true for biological organisms. 

"The key to understanding health was through monitoring and controlling the building blocks which are found in the body's fluids."

-Professor Louis-Claude Vincent, at the International Convention for Medical Electronics in 1962.

How the BioCellular AnalyzerTM Measures Terrain

The BioCellular AnalyzerTM from Baltimore Laboratories, Inc. measures and analyses the factors involved in Biological Terrain and offers an objective assessment of your patients overall health. By testing your saliva, urine and blood, BioCellular Analysis can give you a great deal of information about what is going on in your patients body on a cellular level. The saliva represents digestive function, the blood represents the amount of toxicity you are carrying, and the urine represents elimination capability. More specifically, you will discover if the patient's system is too acidic or too alkaline, whether they have optimum amounts of minerals, and their oxidative stress levels. You will learn whether they are digesting and absorbing minerals and vitamins adequately and even discover the possible presence of damaging industrial or environmental toxins. It is important, however, to know that this form of testing does not diagnose specific diseases, but is an objective test that offers valuable information concerning the biochemical state of the body.

The Baltimore Laboratories BioAnalyzers are the most accurate and technologically advanced instrument in the world for monitoring the milieu intérieur of your patients. With the enhancements of the BL5000 and BL9000 series, all of the three specimens tested (blood, urine, and saliva), will have a very high degree of accuracy:

  1.  pH gives information about the acid-alkaline balance.
  2.  rH2 gives information about the level of oxidation/reduction.
  3.  Resistivity gives information about the level of electrically conductive ions in the biological fluid.

Below are some of the technological advancements that have been added to our device to increase and maintain its accuracy and convenience: 

2-Point Calibration

The BioCellular Analyzer uses two solutions, or calibration points, for each of the three values: pH, rH2, and Resistivity. This is essential for good laboratory practice. As well, Baltimore Laboratories only uses chemicals that represent the highest standards of N.I.S.T. (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable accuracy that ensures complete accuracy of your measurements.

Lab SentryTM

Lab Sentry is a revolutionary, 21st century self-monitoring system. It is analogous to an alarm company monitoring your premises. With a telephone modem in your computer, the analyzer will automatically call Customer Support and report any potential problems. Software updates are automatically sent to your computer-saving you loading time.

"I consider Bio Cellular Analysis to be the corner stone of available, in-office diagnostic tests. With this one test, a practitioner will obtain information about the patients'

  • Hormone and enzyme efficiency
  • Kidney function
  • Cellular energy efficiency
  • Rate of cellular aging
  • Rate of free radical damage
  • Digestive efficiency
  • Detoxification status
  • Stress resiliency

I could not imagine running an effective clinical nutrition practice without this test."

-Robert Rakowski, DC, CCN, DACBN, DIBAK

Optimum Values

In order to accurately assess your patients test results, it is important to have a set of guidelines or optimum values that you can use as a measuring device. Below is a table with the optimum pH, rH2, ORP, and resistivity (r) values for blood, saliva, and urine that were established by Professor Claude Vincent. However, knowing how far away your patients test results are from these optimum values is only the first step. You must also understand what these measurements mean in order to make some determination of how these deviations could be affecting the internal homeostasis of your patients.

Optimal Values in BioCellular Analysis





















pH (acid/alkaline balance)

pH (potential of hydrogen) is the measurement of how acid or how alkaline a solution or bodily fluid is. It is dependent on the number of hydrogen ions present. Acidic measurements lie between 0 and 6.99, while alkaline measurements are between 7.01 and 14.00. The middle point, 7.00 is considered neither acidic nor alkaline. Pure water is an example of a neutral substance. 

Blood pH is the single most important reading, because it is affected by biocellular activity more directly than any other reading. The pH of venous blood is a reflection of three factors:

  1. Respiratory rate; chronic stress combined with improper breathing results in a chronic respiratory alkalosis.
  2. How much oxygen that is being taken up by the tissues. When oxygen is poorly taken up by the tissues, a higher percentage of it remains in the venous blood. Since oxygen is an alkalinizing substance, this results in an increase in the venous pH.
  3. How effectively the tissues are using the oxygen to generate energy. The most effective way for cells to produce energy from oxygen is through oxidative phosphorilation in the mitochondria. This process involves the production of carbon dioxide. The only other way to produce energy though oxygen is through the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, which does not produce carbon dioxide. Therefore, effective energy production results in an increase in carbon dioxide production, whereas inefficient production results in a decrease. Venous pH is determined almost exclusively on the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood due to the following equation:

H2O + CO2   HCO3 + H+

It can be observed that the higher the CO2 concentration, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration, resulting in a lowered pH. Conversely, the lower the CO2 concentration, the lower the hydrogen concentration, and hence the higher the pH.

 Ideal blood pH is about 7.35, or very slightly alkaline. It is controlled by a strict and sensitive system in the body to keep it near that level by adjusting the amount of carbon dioxide (acidic) and bicarbonate (alkaline) in the blood. If the blood becomes too acidic, more acid is excreted in the urine, and more carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs. The opposite is set into motion if the blood becomes too alkaline. A tendency towards acidity, rather than alkalinity, will usually be seen in practice. This is due to the fact that western diets are full of protein rich foods and refined carbohydrates, which create acidity in the body. On the other hand, most fruits and vegetables create alkalinity.

Urine pH reflects the amount of acid residual that is being eliminated from the body. A normal urine pH is around 6.8, but when significant interstitial acid accumulation has occurred, the pH can fall to as low as 5.5. The degree of interstitial acid accumulation can be estimated by comparing the pH of the first morning urine to the pH of a specimen taken at least 30 minutes later. The second specimen should ideally show a significantly higher pH than the first specimen. If it is nearly the same as the first specimen, the degree of acidosis is quite marked.

Of all the biocellular measurements, the saliva values are the most difficult to interpret. It is important to note that they are influenced greatly by the measurements of the blood. Thus when interpreting the saliva values, one must do so by comparing the measurements to those of the blood. For the most part, saliva pH can be attributed mostly to digestive impairment.

Mitochondrial function, hormone receptor sites, and many other functions of the body are extremely dependent on pH balance. Being able to test the pH of blood, urine and saliva is essential to helping your patients achieve optimum health. 

Oxidative Stress (rH2)

The rH2-value is obtained mathematically using pH, ORP, temperature, and is derived through the Nernst equation. It indicates the amount of electron potential in the fluid that is being tested. A high number of available electrons in human cells indicate an optimum situation, signifying a healthy and productive Krebs cycle. In other words, the oxidative stress values show the concentration of electrons and their movement in the body. Nutritional deficiencies, stress, over stimulation of the immune system, lack of exercise, exposure to radiation, and toxicity can all lead to higher than optimum levels. The individual can then be more prone to disease and premature aging. rH2 values can range from 1-42, with 28 being the mid-point. A value of rH2 under 28 is reduced, with a higher number of electron donors than acceptors. A value higher than 28 infers that the fluid is oxidized, with a lower number of electron donors than acceptors

Ideal blood rH2 values should be between 23 and 24. Readings less than 23 are caused by artifact. Readings greater than 24 reflects increasing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is caused by mitochondrial insufficiency, but antioxidant deficiency is often a contributing factor. Saliva rH2 values seem to be more often associated with liver function.

In order to lessen oxidative stress, the physician will make several recommendations to the patient. It is essential to stimulate and drain the lymphatic system, through the use of homeopathic and herbal drainage remedies, and the use of massage, deep breathing, and exercise. Invading toxins should be addressed, such as insecticides, mercury (possible from dental fillings), and heavy metals. The diet should be addressed, with special limitation of alcohol, cigarettes, sugar, and non-organic foods. Liver function should be assisted with the use of herbal and homeopathic remedies, plus reduced glutathione. Stress must be dealt with, as it has such a negative effect on immune function, and enzymatic action within the body. An individual program of nutrients, especially anti-oxidants, vitamins and minerals should be followed. 


The r-value refers to resistivity, or the relative concentration of conductive ions in the biological fluid. Therefore, testing the r-value can indicate the levels of minerals in the body, especially sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. When the r-value it increased, there is low mineral concentration; when r-value is decreased, mineral concentration is increased. Therefore, the relationship between electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity is inversely proportional. When minerals are deficient, enzymatic reactions are poor, and if the mineral content is too high, the fluids of the body can become stagnant and congested.

It is fairly common to see a raised r-value, indicating a lack of minerals, due to many factors. Many experts agree that minerals are becoming depleted in our soils, due to intensive farming practices. Also, the amount of sodas consumed in the western diet contributes to mineral loss from the body, from the phosphorus and sugar levels in soft drinks. Dairy products and refined carbohydrates also take a toll on the levels of minerals in the body, and these are usually high in the western diet.

There are several factors that cause changes in resistivity within the patient's body. These are excess or loss of minerals, poor kidney function, electrolyte imbalance, or sluggish and congested lymphatic system. The patient must have an individualized program that detoxifies the lymphatic system through the use of drainage herbals and homeopathics, balances the pH, detoxifies the liver, and aids kidney function. Plenty of pure water, massage, and diet will also be important to changing the r-values for the patient.


Since the ultimate goal of preventive medicine is to optimize homeostasis, BioCellular Analysis serves as a sensitive and invaluable way to monitor that progress. Armed with all this information, your will be able to make recommendations for your patients therapy, addressing the imbalances that have shown up in their BioCellular Analysis test. It is true that the body is constantly trying to attain homeostasis, and all it needs is a gentle push in the right direction. If correct balance can be reached, the body's wise internal doctor can begin the process of healing. This is generally done with the use of herbal and homeopathic remedies, but also, attention to lifestyle changes, diet, the amount of exercise the patient is getting, proper breathing, and the stress in their life is essential. All these things greatly affect the terrain of the body, and its ability to keep homeostasis.

"BioCellular Analysis is a great starting test. I encourage everyone to master the information and use it to the health of you and your patients."

-Robert Rakowski, DC, CCN at the Gulf Coast Medical Conference in 2002.